Preparation of α-Fe2O3 Nano-photocatalyst supported on Cd(II)-Terephthalic MOF for photocatalytic removal of Cefazolin aqueous solution

Document Type : Articles


Department of Chemistry, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of the antibiotic Cefazolin (CFZ) from aqueous solutions using a new effective catalyst. This catalyst was made of α-Fe2O3-supported nanoparticles on a metal-organic framework (MOF). The synthesis of Nano α-Fe2O3 photocatalyst was performed by the reflux condensation method. The MOF was synthesized using Cadmium nitrate and Terephthalic acid and Nano α-Fe2O3 supported on MOF using a solid-state distribution (SSD) method. FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX, N2 adsorption-desorption and TGA technique were used for the identification of the catalyst. Analysis of these results revealed that α-Fe2O3 circular nanoparticles bonded together and occupy a large area on the MOF crystal surfaces. The BET surface area and the pore diameter of ​​the catalyst obtained were 479 m2g-1 and 3.86 nm respectively. UV/H2O2 photocatalytic processes were applied for the decomposition of CFZ from aqueous solutions. This process was optimized and modeled using the full factorial method. Initial concentrations of CFZ, pH, α-Fe2O3/MOF amounts and initial concentration of H2O2 were the variables for the determination of optimal conditions and mathematical models. The highest degradation percentage of CFZ in the optimum condition (CFZ=30 ppm, pH=8, H2O2=5ppm, catalyst=150mg.l-1) was 85.88%. This photocatalyst reaction has pseudo-first-order kinetic with a constant rate of 0.0752 min-1 and it also matched the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Graphical Abstract

Preparation of α-Fe2O3 Nano-photocatalyst supported on Cd(II)-Terephthalic MOF for photocatalytic removal of Cefazolin aqueous solution


1- In this research, MOF has been used as a basis for catalyst stabilization. This base has a large surface area and increases the activity of the catalyst.

2- The nanoscale catalyst is stabilized on the base and has magnetic properties and is also a semiconductor material. Therefore, it has photocatalytic properties.

3-This catalyst has been used to destroy cefazolin, which is an antibiotic. The results of this research can be considered by researchers who study in the field of photocatalytic processes.

4-The full factorial method is used for optimization. This method provides a mathematical model for this process.

5-The effect of each variable in the process and also the effect of each variable can be examined simultaneously with other variables in the process by factorial method. In this research, these cases have also been investigated.


[1] H. Vera, S. Lúcia, J. Environ. Manage. 92 (2011) 2304-2347.
[2] F. Yuan, C. Hu, X. Hu, J. Qu, M. Yang, Water. Res. 43 (2009) 1766-1774.
[3] I. A. Balcioglu, M. Otker, Chemosphere. 50(1) (2003) 85-95.
[4] M. B Heeb, J. Criquet, S. G. Zimmermann-Steffens, Water. Res. 48 (2014) 15-42.
[5] N. Omrani, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Water. Proc. Eng. 33 (2020) 101094-101105.
[6] A. Pourtaheri, S. Jiao, S. Zheng, D. Yin, L. Wang, L. Chen, Chemosphere. 73 (2008) 377-382.
[7] H. Derikvandi, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Hazard. Mater. 321 (2017) 629–638 
[8] A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 104 (2015) 835-843.
[9] M. Mishra, D. M. Chun, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 498 (2015) 126-141
[10] A. Norouzi, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Physica B: Condensed Matter. 599 (2020) 412422-412431.
[11] M. Zebardast, A. F. Shojaei, K. Tabatabaeian, Iran. J. Catal. 8 (4) (2018) 297-309
[12] M.H. Yap, K. L. Fow, G.Z. Chen, Green. Energ. Environ. 2 (2017) 218–245.    
[13] J. Long, S. Wang, Z. Ding, S. Wang, Y. Zhou, L. Huang, X. Wang, Chem. Commun. 48 (2012) 11656–11658.
[14] N. E. Fard, R. Fazaeli, Iranian J. Catal. 8(2) (2018) 133-141
[15] S Ghattavi, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Inter. J. Hydrog. Energy. 45 (2020) 24636-24656
[16] S. Bharathi, D. Nataraj, D. Mangalaraj, Y. Masuda, K. Senthil, K. Yong, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 015501-015510.
[17] A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, A. Shirzadi, Chemosphere. 107 (2014) 136–144
[18] B. Alqasem, N. Yahya, S. Qureshi, M. Irfan, Z. U. Rehman, H. Soleimani, Mat. Sci. Eng. B. 217 (2017) 49-62  
[19] A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Z. Ghanbari-Mobarakeh, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 21 (2015) 668–676
[20] M.B. Bahar Khodadadi, Iran. J. Catal. 6(1) (2016) 37-42
[21] S. D. Khairnar, V. S. Shrivastava, Iran. J. Catal. 8 (2018) 143-150
[22] M. Balakrishnan, R. John, Iran. J. Catal. 10(1) (2020) 1-16
[23] Y. T. Prabhu, K. V. Rao, V. S. S. Kumar, B. S. Kumari, World. J. Nano Sci. Eng. 4 (2014) 21-28.
[24] A. Kusior, K. Michalec, P. Jelen, M. Radecka, Appl. Surf. Sci. 476 (2019) 342-352
[25] T. Tamiji, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Electroanal. Chem. 829 (2018) 95–105
[26] S. A Hosseini, R. Saeedi, Iran. J. Catal. 7(1) (2017) 37-46
[27] M. Saghi, K. Mahanpoor, Int. J. Ind. Chem. 8 (2017) 297–313
[28] H. Derikvandi, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 348 (2017) 68–78
[29] R. Daghrir, P. Drogui, M.A.E. Khakani, Electrochim. Acta. 83 (2012) 113-124.
[30] R. A. French, A. R. Jacobson, B. Kim, S. L. Isley, R. L. Penn, P. C. Baveye, Environ Sci. Technol. 43(5) (2009) 1354-1359.
[32] B. Divband, A. Jodaei, M. Khatmian, Iran. J. Catal. 9 (2019) 63-70 
[33] Z. Shams-Ghahfarokhi, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Proc. 39 (2015) 265–275. 
[34] S. D. Khairnar, M. R. Patil, V. S. Shrivastava, Iran. J. Catal. 8(2) (2018) 143-150
[35] N. Omrani, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 400 (2020) 112726-112735.
[36] M. Mehrali-Afjani, A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, H. Aghaei, Chem. Phys. Lett. 759 (2020) 137873-137882.
[37] Y. Xiao, X. Song, Z. Liu, R. Li, X. Zhao, Y. Huang, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 45 (2017) 248-256.
[38] Y.Y. Gurkan, N. Turkten, A. Hatipoglu, Z. Cinar, Chem. Eng. J. 184 (2012) 113-124.
[39] M.R. Samarghandi, A. Rahmani, G. Asgari, G. Ahmadidoost, A. Dargahi, Global. NEST. J. 20 (2018) 399-407.
[40] M. Shokri, G. Isapour, M. A. Behnajady, S. Dorosti, Desalin. Water. Treat. 57(27) (2016) 12874-12881.
[41] M. R. Samarghandi, A. Dargahi, A. Rahmani, G. Asgari, G. Ahmadidoust, J Environ Health Eng. 5(2) (2018) 132-146.