CMCFO-Cr0.1 Nanoferrites: Sol-gel Synthesis, Structural, and Magnetic Studies: Applications for Photodegradation of Congo Red Dye

Document Type : Articles

Authors

1 Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Sciences of Monastir, University of Monastir, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia

2 Department of Biotechnology, Research Institute of Modern Biological Techniques (RIMBT), University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45371-38791, Iran

3 Trita Nanomedicine Research Center (TNRC), Zanjan Health Technology Park, Postal code 45156-13191, Zanjan, Iran

4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, 45371-38791 Zanjan, Iran

5 Laboratoire des Matériaux, Organisation et Propriétés, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract

One of the foremost inescapable impediments that industrial sectors face is to remove organic pollutants, which affected nature and threatened the existence of species per se. Nanoscale magnetic ferrites are considerable materials for removing the majority of organic dyes due to their unique properties and high potential photocatalytic activity. Their photocatalytic performance in semiconductor nanocrystals has also received many enthusiasts over the last couple of years.  Changing nanoferrites’ architectural building blocks and increasing their bandgap energy may improve their photocatalytic peculiarities.  In the present investigation, we have studied nanoscale magnetic ferrites with Co0.4Mg0.4Cu0.2Fe1.9Cr0.1O4, (CMCFO-Crx, x= 0.1) formula. CMCFO-Crx has synthesized via sol- gel approach. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized  by XRD, SEM, UV-vis analysis, and magnetic measurement, revealing the cubic spinel structure with space group Fd-3m (N° 277), average size between 20 and 60 nm, higher bandgap energy and saturation magnetization (446 emu/g) in the presence of transition metals. The results demonstrated in CMCFO-Crx (x=0.1) compound, the Curie temperature decreases to 446 K by the substitution of Fe3+ by Cr3+ ions. The synthesized powder nanoferrites efficiently degraded the Congo Red (CR) dye (84 %) under UV irradiation, for which the most probable degradation pathway is proposed. The recyclability test exhibited the nanoscale magnetic ferrites catalysts are sensibly efficient, stable, and facile recoverable by an external magnet. Thus, the CMCFO-Crx compounds can be an applicable catalyst in wastewater treatment.

Graphical Abstract

CMCFO-Cr0.1 Nanoferrites: Sol-gel Synthesis, Structural, and Magnetic Studies: Applications for Photodegradation of Congo Red Dye

Highlights

  • CMCFO-Cr1 Nanoferrites synthesized through simple and facile Sol-gel technique.
  • Synthetic Nanoferrites were characterized by XRD.
  • Magnetic peculiarities of the Nanoferrites were investigated.
  • The prepared Nanoferrites were applied for photodegradation of Congo Red Dye.
  • The effects of various factors such as Effect of light, Influence of catalyst dose, and Influence of irradiation time onphotocatalytic activities of these Nanoferrites were comprehensively investigated.

Keywords


  1. Jabbari, R. and N. Ghasemi, Investigating Methylene Blue Dye Adsorption Isotherms Using Silver Nano Particles Provided by Aqueous Extract of Tragopogon Buphthalmoides, Chem. Methodolog. 2021. 5(1): p. 21-29.
  2. Tesh, S.J. and T.B. Scott, Nano‐composites for water remediation: A review Adv. Mater. 2014. 26(35): p. 6056-6068.
  3. Teymourinia, H., et al., Synthesis of graphene quantum dots from corn powder and their application in reduce charge recombination and increase free charge carriers J. Mol. Liq. 2017. 242: p. 447-455.
  4. Senobari, S. and A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, A comprehensive study on the photocatalytic activity of coupled copper oxide-cadmium sulfide nanoparticles Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol. Spec. 2018. 196: p. 334-343.
  5. Ling, S.K., S. Wang, and Y. Peng, Oxidative degradation of dyes in water using Co2+/H2O2 and Co2+/peroxymonosulfate J. Hazard. Mater. 2010. 178(1-3): p. 385-389.
  6. Rasouli, N., et al., An insight on kinetic adsorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using magnetic chitosan based composites as adsorbent Chem. Methodolog. 2017. 1(1): p. 74-86.
  7. Salavati, H., A. Teimouri, and S. Kazemi, Synthesis and characterization of novel composite-based phthalocyanine used as efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl orange, Chem. Methodolog. 2017. 1(1): p. 12-27.
  8. Alidadykhoh, M., H. Pyman, and H. Roshanfekr, Application of a new polymer AgCl nanoparticles coated polyethylene terephetalat [PET] as adsorbent for removal and electrochemical determination of methylene blue dye, Chem. Methodolog. 2021. 5(2): p. 96-106.
  9. Amar, I., et al., Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using nano-magnetic adsorbent based on zinc-doped cobalt ferrite, Chem. Methodolog. 2020. 4(1): p. 1-18.
  10. Ranjbar, S., G. Haghdoost, and A. Ebadi, Adsorption of Methyl Red Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Gamma Alumina Nanoparticles Chem. Methodolog. 5(2): p. 190-199.
  11. Zebardast, M., A. Fallah Shojaei, and K. Tabatabaeian, Enhanced removal of methylene blue dye by bimetallic nano-sized MOF-5s Iran. J. Catal. 2018. 8(4): p. 297-309.
  12. Bekkali, C.E., et al., Effects of metal oxide catalysts on the photodegradation of antibiotics effluent, J. Catal. 2018. 8(4): p. 241-247.
  13. Sadeghi, M., M. Irandoust, and H. Azadi, Efficient photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue and victoria blue using reusable TiO2 magnetic nanocomposite modified with zinc under UV irradiation: optimization via response surface methodology (RSM) Desalination and Water Treatment 2018. 114: p. 285-296.
  14. Casbeer, E., V.K. Sharma, and X.-Z. Li, Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ferrites under visible light: a review, Separat. Purif. Tech. 2012. 87: p. 1-14.
  15. Viswanathan, B., Photocatalytic degradation of dyes: an overview, Current Catal. 2018. 7(2): p. 99-121.
  16. Ghattavi, S. and A. Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, GC-MASS detection of methyl orange degradation intermediates by AgBr/g-C3N4: Experimental design, bandgap study, and characterization of the catalyst Inter. J. Hydrogen Ener. 2020. 45(46): p. 24636-24656.
  17. Vijayaraghavan, T., et al., Rapid and efficient visible light photocatalytic dye degradation using AFe2O4 (A= Ba, Ca and Sr) complex oxides, Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 2016. 210: p. 43-50.
  18. Ali, N., et al., Photocatalytic degradation of congo red dye from aqueous environment using cobalt ferrite nanostructures: development, characterization, and photocatalytic performance Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 2020. 231(2): p. 1-16.
  19. Zarei, A. and S. Saedi, Synthesis and application of Fe 3 O 4@ SiO 2@ Carboxyl-terminated PAMAM Dendrimer Nanocomposite for heavy metal removal, J. Inorganic Organometal. Poly. Mater. 2018. 28(6): p. 2835-2843.
  20. Abbas, N., et al., The photocatalytic performance and structural characteristics of nickel cobalt ferrite nanocomposites after doping with bismuth, J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 2021. 594: p. 902-913.
  21. Behura, R., R. Sakthivel, and N. Das, Synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles from waste iron ore tailings and spent lithium ion batteries for photo/sono-catalytic degradation of Congo red, Powder Tech. 2021. 386: p. 519-527.
  22. Ichimura, T., K. Fujiwara, and H. Tanaka, Dual field effects in electrolyte-gated spinel ferrite: electrostatic carrier doping and redox reactions, Sci. reports 2014. 4(1): p. 1-5.
  23. Liu, S.-Q., Magnetic semiconductor nano-photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants Environ. Chem. Lett. 2012. 10(3): p. 209-216.
  24. Shobana, M., Nanoferrites in biosensors–A review Mater. Sci. Eng. B 2021. 272: p. 115344.
  25. Iqbal, M.A., et al., La-and Mn-codoped Bismuth Ferrite/Ti3C2 MXene composites for efficient photocatalytic degradation of Congo Red dye ACS Omega 2019. 4(5): p. 8661-8668.
  26. Noack, C.W., D.A. Dzombak, and A.K. Karamalidis, Rare earth element distributions and trends in natural waters with a focus on groundwater, Environ. Sci. Tech. 2014. 48(8): p. 4317-4326.
  27. Degen, T., et al., The highscore suite Powder Diffraction 2014. 29(S2): p. S13-S18.
  28. Thankachan, R.M., et al., Cr 3+-substitution induced structural reconfigurations in the nanocrystalline spinel compound ZnFe 2 O 4 as revealed from X-ray diffraction, positron annihilation and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies RSC Adv. 2015. 5(80): p. 64966-64975.
  29. Shelke, S.B., Studies on the Structural, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Some Substituted Spinel Ferrites. Insta Publishing. 2020, P. 1-7.
  30. Holzwarth, U. and N. Gibson, The Scherrer equation versus the'Debye-Scherrer equation' Nature Nanotech 2011. 6(9): p. 534-534.
  31. Teymourinia, H., et al., Application of green synthesized TiO2/Sb2S3/GQDs nanocomposite as high efficient antibacterial agent against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, Mater. Sci. Eng.: C 2019. 99: p. 296-303.
  32. Yaghoubi-berijani, M., B. Bahramian, and S. Zargari, The Study of Photocatalytic Degradation Mechanism under Visible Light Irradiation on BiOBr/Ag Nanocomposite, Iran. J. Catal. 2020. 10(4): p. 307-317.
  33. Senftle, T.P., et al., The ReaxFF reactive force-field: development, applications and future directions npj Computational Materials 2016. 2(1): p. 1-14.
  34. Pubby, K., et al., Cobalt substituted nickel ferrites via Pechini’s sol–gel citrate route: X-band electromagnetic characterization, J. Magnetism Magnetic Mater. 2018. 466: p. 430-445.
  35. Houshiar, M., et al., Synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles using combustion, coprecipitation, and precipitation methods: A comparison study of size, structural, and magnetic properties J. Magnetism Magnetic Mater. 2014. 371: p. 43-48.
  36. Toksha, B., et al., Structural investigations and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel auto combustion method, Solid State Commun. 2008. 147(11-12): p. 479-483.
  37. Wilson, A., et al., Preparation and photocatalytic properties of hybrid core–shell reusable CoFe2O4–ZnO nanospheres J. Magnetism Magnetic Mater. 2012. 324(17): p. 2597-2601.
  38. Ferdosi, E., H. Bahiraei, and D. Ghanbari, Investigation the photocatalytic activity of CoFe2O4/ZnO and CoFe2O4/ZnO/Ag nanocomposites for purification of dye pollutants Separation and Purification Technology 2019. 211: p. 35-39.
  39. Sathishkumar, P., et al., ZnO supported CoFe2O4 nanophotocatalysts for the mineralization of Direct Blue 71 in aqueous environments J. Hazard. Mater. 2013. 252: p. 171-179.
  40. Wahba, A.M. and M.B. Mohamed, Structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline Cr-substituted Co0. 8Ni0. 2Fe2O4 ferrit, Ceramics Inter. 2014. 40(4): p. 6127-6135.
  41. Bugarčić, M., et al., Vermiculite enriched by Fe (III) oxides as a novel adsorbent for toxic metals removal J. Environmen. Chem. Eng. 2021. 9(5): p. 106020.
  42. Jasrotia, R., et al., Photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutant using nickel and cerium ions substituted Co 0.6 Zn 0.4 Fe 2 O 4 nanoferrites Earth Systems and Environment 2021: p. 1-19.
  43. Boutra, B., et al., Magnetically separable MnFe2O4/TA/ZnO nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of Congo Red under visible light J. Magnetism Magnetic Mater. 2020. 497: p. 165994.
  44. Rahimi, R., et al., Synthesis, characterization and adsorbing properties of hollow Zn-Fe2O4 nanospheres on removal of Congo red from aqueous solution Desalination 2011. 280(1-3): p. 412-418.
  45. Hezam, F., O. Nur, and M. Mustafa, Synthesis, structural, optical and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4/MWCNTs/ZnO hybrid nanocomposite for solar radiation driven photocatalytic degradation and magnetic separation Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2020. 592: p. 124586.
  46. Bianco Prevot, A., et al., Photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 80 in aqueous solutions containing TiO2 suspensions Environ. Sci. Tech. 2001. 35(5): p. 971-976.
  47. Houas, A., et al., Photocatalytic degradation pathway of methylene blue in water Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2001. 31(2): p. 145-157.
  48. Riga, A., et al., Effect of system parameters and of inorganic salts on the decolorization and degradation of Procion H-exl dyes. Comparison of H2O2/UV, Fenton, UV/Fenton, TiO2/UV and TiO2/UV/H2O2 processes Desalination 2007. 211(1-3): p. 72-86.
  49. Teymourinia, H., et al., GQDs/Sb2S3/TiO2 as a co-sensitized in DSSs: improve the power conversion efficiency of DSSs through increasing light harvesting by using as-synthesized nanocomposite and mirror Appl. Surf. Sci. 2020. 512: p. 145638.
  50. Vinodgopal, K., et al., A photocatalytic approach for the reductive decolorization of textile azo dyes in colloidal semiconductor suspensions Langmuir 1994. 10(6): p. 1767-1771.
Volume 12, Issue 1
March 2022
Pages 97-106
  • Receive Date: 18 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 07 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 14 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 01 March 2022